“If violence is learned it can be unlearned.”
— Transforming Communities
Intimate partner violence is, indeed, preventable. That is the purpose of NYSCADV's Primary Prevention Project. This project began with our work on the DELTA Project, a national prevention project that supports efforts to design, implement and evaluate strategies that stop intimate partner violence from occurring in the first place. NYSCADV was a participant from the project’s inception in 2002 until 2012, and today continues on in the work of primary prevention
NYSCADV PREVENTION PROJECT TOOLKIT
The NYSCADV Prevention Project Toolkit contains exercises, activities, primers, information and resources designed to help individuals and groups think about what would prevent domestic violence from happening in their communities. Tools and resources are chosen carefully, based on lessons learned from the New York State DELTA Project and successes from local domestic violence programs throughout the state. Tools and techniques promoted in the toolkit support groups and individuals to go through their own process of discovery and decision-making to determine the role they wish to play in changing their communities.
For more information on utilizing the resources and information found in this toolkit call Lorien Castelle, Director of Prevention at 585-413-0887. Training and coaching is available upon request.
NYSCADV STATE PREVENTION PLAN
In 2006, a New York State Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Consortium (Consortium) was developed to provide state level leadership and support in challenging and reshaping the social conditions and norms that condone and promote domestic violence, and to facilitate a statewide planning process regarding the primary prevention of domestic violence. The Consortium brings together a vital mix of formal organizational collaboration along with broad community support through the inclusion of a multidisciplinary group of experienced prevention practitioners, stakeholders, and advocates.
Strategic Directions for the Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence in New York State is the result of the Consortium’s planning process and was originally published in 2010. This is an updated version that reflects current data and knowledge gained throughout the process of implementing the plan. Cognizant of the fact that domestic violence is an issue that calls for community-oriented approaches to stopping abuse before it can begin, this plan is informed by extensive stakeholder interviews; assessment of community profile data including the scope of the problem of domestic violence in New York State; and the review of existing approaches to prevention used in community contexts throughout New York State. The compilation of this information led to four strategic directions that construct a blueprint of goals, creating a comprehensive approach to preventing domestic violence in New York. The four strategic directions are:
Strengthen the existing capacity of domestic violence programs to promote primary prevention of domestic violence.
Promote coordination among the public sector entities within the Intimate Partner Violence Prevention System in New York.
Support the dissemination of primary prevention strategies for youth and young adults in non-school based settings.
Support the dissemination of primary prevention strategies for youth and young adults in school based settings.
Be a part of creating a New York free of intimate partner violence! To find out more about how you can become involved, contact Lorien Castelle, NYSCADV's Director of Prevention at 1-585-413-0887.
WHAT IS PRIMARY PREVENTION?
Three Levels of Prevention
- Primary – Approaches that take place before domestic violence has occurred to prevent first time victimization or perpetration (before)
- Secondary – To intervene, respond and/or prevent violence from happening again and deal with short-term consequences (after, intermediate) -i.e. arrest, emergency shelter, medical attention
- Tertiary – To provide ongoing support to victims and ongoing accountability to abusers (after, long term) – i.e. Support Group and Batterer Accountability Programs through Probation.
Primary prevention is on a continuum with intervention (secondary or tertiary prevention). Primary prevention activities can be designed to compliment intervention strategies that are already in place in a community.
Models, Tools, & Approaches
- The Public Health Model offers a four step approach for developing primary prevention strategies:
- Define problem or need
- Identify risk and protective factors
- Develop and evaluate prevention strategies
- Disseminate promising strategies
Social Ecological Model
Individual behavior development, change, and maintenance are influenced by each level of the social ecology. The four levels of the social ecology are: individual, relationship, community and society. (An organizational level can also be included and can be found in other versions of this nested model.)
Accordingly, each level of the social ecological model can be thought of as an avenue through which individual behavior development, change, and maintenance can be promoted. To prevent IPV from initially occurring, each level of the social ecology offers opportunities to develop and maintain individual behavior associated with non-violence and change behaviors associated with violence. When you are developing prevention strategies across the four levels of the social ecology, the key is to note which avenue you are using to influence individual behavior.
Each level is connected and reinforces the others, while representing separate, but complementary avenues through which to prevent domestic violence.
- Strategies can be directed at individuals to change their social/ cognitive skills/ behaviors
- These activities are designed to change the people in close interpersonal relationship with your targeted individuals
- Activities designed to change environments in communities – common social settings, groups or organizations, i.e. schools, may do so through changing the climate or conditions that allow domestic violence to exist by addressing policy, training and interpersonal skills of people in these settings
- Changing societal or cultural norms through media or legislative advocacy designed to effect broader, systemic social change, i.e. economic development, national or statewide social marketing campaigns.
Universal, Selected and Indicated Approaches
Prevention activities and strategies can be directed at an entire population (universal strategies,) at a group considered “at risk” (selected) or at a group already exposed to violence or has already perpetrated or has been victims (indicated). Stopping violence before it occurs, irrespective of who might be at risk for perpetration or vulnerable to being victimized, may be addressed by a prevention program that addresses the whole population (universal.) This involves moving beyond raising awareness and increasing knowledge to changing attitudes, behaviors and beliefs (KABB’s,) in order to change the conditions in a community that allow domestic and sexual violence to thrive. NYSCADV believes that employing an “action learning” approach increases the chance of prevention activities achieving successful outcomes. “Action learning” gives training participants opportunities to dialogue and engage in activities that help them practice the skills that the program is promoting.
“Action + Awareness = Change”
— Transforming Communities
Strategies for Developing Primary Prevention Messages
- Identify the social norms and “negative” messages/incentives and act to remove or change them
- Create and promote “positive” messages/incentives through established community systems and key individuals such as Public Opinion Leaders (POL’s.) Utilize a peer service learning model in schools.
- Saturate individuals in the chosen setting or community with multiple prevention messages over time. Research indicates that one-time events or activities are less effective in changing attitudes and behaviors due to the individuals limited exposure to the information. (Nation, et al, What Works in Prevention: Principles of Effective Prevention Programs. American Psychologist, 58, 449-456. (2003).
What Are We Trying to Change?
- Knowledge – For change in knowledge provide succinct and clear information; an increase in knowledge can occur in one-time brief (up to one hour) encounter.
- Attitudes – For change in attitude provide information and an appeal to emotions or personal impact; some practice is necessary; takes time and multiple encounters.
- Beliefs & Behavior – For change in behavior people need to demonstrate and practice new skills and communicate with others during the learning process; usually takes multiple events that include practicing the skills.
Social Change Framework
- Seek to uncover root or underlying causes of the behaviors at all levels – asking why Domestic Violence occurs/exists, what promotes it, what condones it, etc.
- Recognize the interconnectedness of oppression – racism, sexism, heterosexism, classism, adultism, ableism, etc. – challenging imbalances of power are key to creating a community which views all of its members as valuable and which views violence, including institutional violence, as intolerable.
Public Health Prevention Information Adapted from “Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual Violence Prevention: Beginning the Dialogue. Atlanta, GA: CDC, 2004.